3g · 4g · 5g · Android · mobiles · technology · Uncategorized

Smartphones inside out – part 2: mobile networks

Reading Time: 14 minutes

I wrote a post about mobile phones a “bit” earlier. This is the follow-up, with mobile networks. They are, inevitably, something that the whole mobile culture relies on. Yet I think mobile networks have received quite little interest from general public.

5G is a hot topic right now in 2018. The generations of mobile networks mean that there is an incremental continuation in improving (often) the speed, coverage and generally the capacilities of the mobile network. 5G has been a long time in the waiting. There are stepping stones to it, from the current 4G, so the change is not a “turn of a switch”.

Let’s get back to basics.

I was fascinated with the mobile masts early on. img_8169I’m not “into them” so much nowadays, but remember scaling one mast and checking it out myself as a teen.

During studies I was part of a local radio amateur club (OH2TI) for a couple of years in Otaniemi, 2005 and 2006 (or thereabouts). This was much better way to get familiarized with masts, radio technology, electronics, and people.

Mobile networks are the almost invisible part of our mobile culture. Without them, there wouldn’t be “mobility” at all – we’d just be carrying phones that could not seamlessly connect to other phones, servers, and landline phones. Proliferation of the network’s components has led to better coverage and a faster network. The support structure in densely populated cities is different from rural areas. However the ingenuity of a mobile network is that it unifies the layer so that users feel as if the network is magically omnipresent.

Looking back now in 2017 to the roots of telecommunication, it’s easy to almost forget what a long journey had to be taken to get the quality of mobile networks available today.

As the story of Nokia Mobile Phones has somewhat waned from public limelight, the Nokia (network company) goes on strong.  tn_siilasmaaIn fact, in autumn 2018 Risto Siilasmaa is publishing a book about the current Nokia!

Network speeds in mobile world have gone through the ceiling, almost. A 50 mbit/s mobile download speed would have been pure fantasy just a decade ago.

Nowadays it’s quite evident that mobile networks are used for 2 prime purposes: transmitting speech and transmitting data. Speech used to be the sole type of payload going between a mobile phone and the network. Nowadays the roles have almost swapped: people use data, by using their smartphone apps, possibly more than they’re using talk.

SMS or short text messages was a curious “freak invention”. People could send a maximum of 160 characters from a phone to another. SMS did not technically “consume” bandwidth between the hops in mobile network, since the message payload data was transmitted in a control channel. SMS became a killer app; it is even still used a lot, even though there are a lot of “competing” applications that utilize data, and can provide a richer means to transmit icons, animations and photos along with text.

How does a mobile talk to the mobile network?

A mobile network faces the phones using radio. Radio itself is an older invention. The modern digital mobile networks always have to, nevertheless, work according to and respecting radio principles. That’s part of “why”: we need standards bodies to regulate radio traffic, otherwise an ensuing chaos would not have enabled the development of such widespread and homogenous quality adaptation of mobility.

Session between phone and mast

So, img_8170each mobile phone has a “discussion” (ongoing session) with a mast. For example our speech becomes a stream of bits: first the mobile phone digitizes the voice of its user, then sends this on wire. The “wire” happens to be radio, not a cable — but do remember, often the gap between masts is indeed a wire ūüôā

In 1990s the antenna design race was a big one. There was also a settling period between whether the antenna should be visible (a whip) or embedded cleanly into the phone. The latter won.

All things are layered, so that for example a software developer does not have to know all the gross details of radio networks. Even the mobile phone manufacturer doesn’t these days have to know all the details: manufacturers can subcontract the manufacture and design of electronic chips used in the phones.

Mobile network speed

The speed comes in three different aspects: latency, bandwidth and the network coverage. A fourth aspect is jitter (the variability of quality during time).

In reality there is also a 5th aspect that is not actually about the mobile network; but rather the load of an application server. Just as in desktop computers, some sites might have inadequate capacity, considering the number of users, and thus the user experience is not the best possible.

The latency is the initial setup time of a data connection, and it is also the minimal time that it takes to get any amount of data from transmitting phone to a receiving phone (or server). Latency affects the quality of real-time communications like speech, video and gaming. Less is better. Nowadays latency as low as 5-10 milliseconds is achievable in mobile networks. When first data capabilities appeared in mobile networks, the setup might take several 1000s of milliseconds.

Why the mobile network speed is tricky?

In mobile networks you are always out there, in the wild: things are a little bit more unpredictable than those office LANs. The amount of cell towers, their interconnect network quality, temporary issues that have to do with weather, natural and built obstructions between phone and the mast; network outages, and many other things affect your perception of the quality of a mobile network.

When you buy a mobile lease, that is, sign up with a mobile operator, you’re buying a snapshot of their offering: how things stand today. That is, quality and prices can change in the future. If the operator doesn’t expand capacity as fast as it gains new customers, then on average the throughput will decline.

Sometimes bottlenecks in capacity are not directly up to the operator – they might face legislative, technical or even political reasons for not being able to change the network structure.

Evolution of mobile tech

15 years back the phone was most about 2 things: built-in features and a fixed software. The pace of development was fast, but it was in a different way: every release of a new phone model was anticipated by questions regarding what Truly New Features were packed into the make and model.

Phones were also exploring the form factor quite radically in the 1990s:whether the phone was a single-piece or had a bevel (joint) and a separate screen; how many real buttons the phone had. The design of the buttons (ordinary, 4 directions, a “navi” roller etc.).

At some point completely new things, like the digital camera, surprised the markets. Camera was an interesting thing, especially now judged afterwards. It became an essential ingredient of the smart phone.

World first in camera phones? Samsung with the model

Then further down the line, innovations became kind of more anticipated: you’d get still leaps of new exciting development, but it was¬†incremental, not disruptive. iPhones have basically stopped evolution since iPhone 4: even the staff at Apple Stores roll their eyes when being asked about “What’s the next iPhone going to bring?”. Answer: “A little bit of this and that – nothing magic.”

Apps, apps, more apps!

Nowadays there are millions of apps on app stores. An average consumer keeps about 17 apps per phone.

Thus the competition for “attention” on a user’s phone is fierce, even though technically the limit to hold more apps is starting to vanish. People just don’t want too much clutter on that very personal real estate. Typically the choice to start an app requires some swiping left/right on the phone. The more you have apps, the longer it takes to get to the correct one. It’s a usability issue.

Today’s 1 mbit/s, 5, or even 40-50 mbit/s burst download speeds are insanely fast compared to the almost magical 9600 bit/s that initially was allocated to a phone by its “host”, the mobile tower. Today’s speeds are thus

Let’s put the Moore’s law to test. Moore can predict to the future of technological evolution. It’s an empirical formula, based on the initial observations of how gates (components) in integrated chips got smaller. This ‘minituriazation’ is the key phenomena that enables high-tech products.

Evolution of the Mobile Network

How slow or fast were things with a early “smartphone”?

When Nokia’s “Communicator“, a flagship product, hit the road in 1996, and soon became a legend, the mobile data network was quite different back then. A phone’s data connection practically rode at most on max 2 combined GSM data channels. Each data channel packed 9,6 kbit/s so the Communicator could run at a then-whopping 19200 bits/s.

Let’s take as example one digital image, around 128 kilobytes, and that would take 54 seconds to download. Impractical. Nowadays in 2018 the download time is in reality somewhere between 1 and 2 seconds. Not bad at all! Let’s say it is 25 x faster now.

By the way, taking that image download example, with 5G coming in 2018-2020 these kinds of small UX improvements are expected to get “just right” – that’s my bet. There’s also something that tech itself can improve. The way those images are being used can affect the various parts of the timing, and thus our psychological feeling of how fluently the particular service works.

Let us hop back to 1996 and the Communicator:

in practical sense, for example most emails were only pure ASCII text – something around 1-2 kilobytes per mail; thus 20 new mails could be downloaded in 18 seconds. Or a single email in about 3-5 seconds, with all the protocol set-up etc that took place when the client-server connection was established. It wasn’t exactly as fluid as you’d want, but then again: it was quite a breakthrough, a shift in the paradigm: you did not have to be sitting at your desk. You were suddenly truly “mobile”, capable of doing most parts of work anywhere. Well, anywhere within the reach of mobile networks.

The 19200 bps speed we mentioned is a tiny fraction of the speeds of nowaday’s 4G networks. It’s less than 1 percent of 4G’s speed. Imagine that!

Still the 1990s Nokia Communicator was a phenomenal success story at that time. It was iconic, and it also brought significant power to the owner.

Handover and the magic of data

A mobile phone, in order to stay useful and true to its breed, keeps a connection to its “parent” – the mobile mast. The phone basically only peeks into the world through its data connection. This is the very core phenomena of “the world is at your fingertips” -illusion: yes – and no. Only the next “hop” (a PC with a network connection) is at your phone’s fingertips. If that server machine – the “receiving end” of your mobile data connection – is not up, then you’ll take a dive into the abyss: “no connectivity”. However during times the technology has been evolving and almost 100% of the time you will have a data connection. Almost magic!

The scenario is not that much different from your laptop and the WiFi access point (“hotspot”). With mobile phones, the distances are greater, and usually there’s also a rather constant movement – thus a “handover” is expected. In handover the mobile phone¬†leaves¬†one network and enters another network. In many cases, this is completely automatic and the user doesn’t know a handover took place.

(By the way; depending on the design, if in the “laptop scenario” we mentioned before, you leave the range of your hotspot, you’ll¬†lose¬†connectivity. Any attempt to access Internet will show an error message. It is possible to design campus networks so that there are Wi-fi¬†repeaters within the area, densely enough, so you can carry around and do work with your laptop, and it jumps from a hotspot to another as needed).

Looking at the feature list of a mobile (cellphone) sometimes makes us dizzy. The lists, as fair and accurate they might be, don’t tell the whole story. Usually just acronyms are used: WCDMA, 3G, GSM, WiFi, UMTS, EDGE, and so on.¬†I think there’s a vast population of users to whom these words mean absolutely nothing, or, sometimes even worse, they vaguely bring into mind something which practically leads to expensive or inefficient use of the phone.

On manufacturer side, 3G and 4G networks have become de facto. The availability and quality is still an ongoing quest, worldwide, and there are huge differences in average density and speeds per country.

Without proper knowledge one can use the phone in very unoptimal way, pay too much fees, and get frustrated because of network outages. Knowledge never hurts.

GSM – the foundations of mobility

The three letters “GSM” used to be eponymous for the whole handset industry. GSM originates from a standards group (originally¬†Groupe Sp√©cial Mobile ), a very small one, which drafted the technology that united a back-then quite heterogeneous set of mobile network technologies. One crucial example: handover.

When you use a mobile phone in car or while walking, you cross boundaries between different base stations. A base station can be “heard” only for about a few kilometers – beyond that the signal fades off. A handover happens when two base stations agree that your mobile phone call will be continued even after crossing the boundary.

GSM is the main standard that enables worldwide mobile communications. GSM was immensely importance at its time, and still guarantees interoperability of the phones at voice and text message level.

A couple of rule of thumbs:

– know your phone’s settings: what your phone’s hardware (features) allow, what is available to be modified as settings, and where you can find them in the menus

– different network technologies have varying maximum speeds, physical ranges, and security. Use the one that is suitable for your purposes.

Analog and digital networks

I’ll leave largely the software part aside, and concentrate on those (physical) network features. The original cell phones used different kind of technology: analog networks.

These were very much the same as what radio amateurs had been using for decades: one’s voice is transferred into a different frequency, mixed with a carrier wave, and transmitted. On the other end, a reverse process happens and the listener receives the original voice.

While these were simple, analog networks had problems with security, conflicts (overhearing other people’s talk), and the inability to serve as a backbone for modern services. Thus GSM standard was born. The word ‘GSM’ came to mean also the cell phone itself. GSM is an interoperability standard which defines digital communications between phones, using mobile base stations (‘masts’).

The neat idea of digitization is that once you have that basic ‘pipe’ or connection between two phones, you can do a lot of things over it. Text messages, Web, using email, and a lot of other¬†services became possible. A flagship product of this kind of “mobile office” was probably Nokia’s Communicator 9000.


But as simple as we’d like to keep the digitization, the truth is a bit more complex. The basic reason behind this is that still, no matter how digital, the communications happens in the electromagnetic spectrum – in the air, using electrons. Electrons are guided by antennas. They fly through air (kind of – unfortunately; electrons would be ideally precise in void, but we would have trouble without air to breathe ūüėČ and are received by another antenna – the receiver.

This movement of electrons (electricity) obeys the laws of physics, which don’t give a heck about what’s going on the “upper plane”. All communications that we use in today’s world (2016) happens using some band (slice) of a frequency.

Where do WiFi, Bluetooth, 3G, 4G come in?

The thing to note first is that phone communications can be of three distinct types:

  1. autonomously between two phones
  2. phone using local wireless area network (WiFi)
  3. phone using data network (3G, 4G)
The first type of communication includes Bluetooth and infrared (IR). It’s just about “swapping” data, when the phones are relatively close to each other. The significance of phone-to-phone communications has declined, as it is plain easier to use ritually a “TCP/IP” communications method, ie the Internet. Another thing that diminishes the practicality of phone-to-phone is that large business platforms like Facebook, Google tools and a host of others all benefit most if all data goes through a central point (their servers).
However, where autonomous communication is important, will be between the mobile phone and local information systems like ticket vending, or a car’s entertainment system.
It doesn’t cost anything, because there is no operator in between. The phones usually negotiate a security code (PIN) by asking the users to agree on one. People use this kind of comms to swap addresses, copy files, and so on. The speeds vary, Bluetooth being faster than infrared. BT is also more secure and robust to interference. Also NFC (near field communications) is a type of autonomous communications, where the receiver is often a POS device at a shop.
Where does one need WiFi?
That’s actually a very neat feature, that can save you money and allow doing software installations, updates, and operating system installations easier. WiFi means that your phone essentially looks like a computer to a WiFi hotspot device: the device allows you to become part of the network, essentially Internet.
The most obvious place to have WiFi is at your home or work. Also public places like libraries, cafes, and metropolitan areas in general can have a network coverage.
WiFi cannot charge (make you pay) directly, but you may not receive access rights to WiFi network in some places, before you pay. For example, some hotels, airports, or other similar places require you to buy a coupon which gives you a username and password, or might otherwise authorize you to use the network.
The ‘native’ data communication happens using 3G or 4G networks. These are mechanisms by which your phone can relay information between any other computer (server) that would basically be reachable via Internet. When you load a Web page, read your email, or do anything that comes from the Internet, your phone will most likely use these networks (but the preference, order of networks is configurable).
Note that 3G and 4G data has a real price. There are several billing plans (‘data plans‘): by amount of data being transferred, a fixed data plan (monthly costs), temporary data plan (usually bought for one day) – actually too many to exhaustively list all of them. What matters is that you know your plan type.
The most dangerous situation is when you are not sure about what kind of plan you have, and still continue using the data features: this puts you into jeopardy of getting a very hefty bill the next time your operator sends you one. So: be sure! Use the Internet (on a PC), or call your operator to get timely information of the plans.
What’s the future of mobile computing and phones?
– “no one knows”
– ..but still we might have good guesses
Understanding the market drivers
– companies
– temporary financial drivers in components and manufacture profitability
– large handset manufacturers are also interested more and more about network quality
– B2B sales drive security needs: corporations are obliged by law to have security standards, and part of this is the mobile security
Many smartphones become severely “impeded” without a good quality mobile network. The phone/network symbiosis has become evident. A way to test that out is to turn off the mobile data in your own phone. Then the apps will (only) function mostly when you’re in the reach of a free Wifi. Some apps however are useful even in this off-line usage mode.
One can still home in to Wifi networks here and there, but without mobile data coverage, the phone
Theoretically ordinary mobile operator’s services could be hosted on a server, and let the phones roam in Wi-fi -like networks. Thus this would open up the traditionally very “closed-domain” role of a mobile operator. But there are strong economic incentives that direct the path of technological advances in things like mobile networks: carrier’s one of the most valuable and hard-to-imitate asset is exactly this “core mobile network”.
There have been these kind of tests; for example in the city of Oulu, Finland. Oulu is one of the birth places of mobile telecommunications, and has a pioneering attitude to develop even radically new kinds of mobile paradigms. City of Oulu provided a “Finland first” in communal, free wireless network.
Why haven’t the data speeds grown faster?
Reality vs. what we think
– network coverage
– true average attainable speeds
What’s keeping us back from enjoying high-quality, non-interrupted TV on a mobile phone? The answers are variable, and there’s a lot behind the development. Some of the things we’re experiencing are because of heavy standardization processes. Mobile communications is a field that needs rules for the players, in order to make it possible for a large group of users enjoy the experience. If there was no standardization of radio frequency use, we would essentially be electronically jamming each other and no one would be able to get data through.
Networking in general had problems in the 1970s and 1980s due to inconsistent technologies, which meant that even within a single building there might have been half a dozen different network technologies. (By the way, Cisco – the network company – was built out of the vision that these networks should be interconnected and working together!)
This same kind of problem was troublesome for WiFi, too – at first incompatibilities seemed to be a major obstacle to success. When technology is in its infancy, consumers are often very skeptical – and, when the benefits start to show up, so do new customers line up.

Final words

Mobile networks arose from a simple idea: carry voice and data, through a backbone, and “surface” the coverage with a radio connection. Thus you would create a network that would allow you, the user, roam around freely and still be connected. The first analog mobile networks were already tried in the 1970s. GSM standard was a major miletsone in the unification and standardization of digital communication in the mobile networks. Data usage has overtaken voice during the 2000s. Cravings for ever greater speeds, coverage and flexibility drives the evolution of mobile networks, now entering the 5G era in around 2018-2020 throughout the world.


By the way! img_8167¬†I really don’t recommend scaling the mobile masts. Rather, pass this article on, and/or drop a question here, right in the comments. This way we’ll get much more information on this modern day marvel of mobile networks.
2010 · 3g · advances · automation · cognition

Back to basics: quantifying the web

Reading Time: 3 minutes

I stumbled upon developing a iGoogle gadget. These small web programs are floating in the customizable front page of Google account owners. They can be used to push information to the user, and probably in the near future they develop into real applications.

The point isn’t actually about this specific technology. What I started thinking was, is it possible that in the very near future we can test, index and handle the web in a systematical, reliable way? Let’s say something along these lines:

if (blog("John Smith") has new content since yesterday) then Display(the content)

find (the best article (about "NASA space mission")) with length of (3-4 pages)
find (a free picture (of "venomous snake") at least (size 1024 x 768))

Not just tech, but vision

What I mean is that instead of the very technically diverse, and sometimes spaghetti-like content what we now see in the HTML source code, we could have content that really could be utilized in flexible ways. The problem is not technical, actually. I am sure there are solutions for this kind of thing. The problem is really at awareness; people’s understanding of what openness can mean for the entire world. Just like the common mathematics we use in science, the language of the web could mean a significant step forward if the information content could be used in several contexts, easily.

Origin of WWW

The original WWW architecture was invented (or attributed at least) by Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, a professor in Oxford. When he was doing the research at CERN, Tim felt that the scientific papers and documents in the world were very hard to access. Thus he started to think about platform neutral solution for information access and conversion, and eventually came up with what was known as the World Wide Web. Technically it was the client-server protocol called HTTP, or Hyper text transfer protocol.

Multiple modalities: context counts

What is interesting is to see how the command line fares against graphical user interfaces, and how these two are combined with sensor interfaces like those used in virtual reality glasses. Yet another spice which we are going to be utilizing probably a bit more is context/location sensitivity. You could sort your email based on in which city you are; those requests for a meeting, coffee break etc. would be prioritized first, since you’re most likely to be able to tend a meeting which is 5km from your position – not the one across the globe.

Getting the juice out of bits

I’ve always wanted to develop intelligent filters for email. Email, though is quite aged, is still the strong backbone of our communications and intelligence. It’s enhanced by the use of mobile communications and instant messaging, but still there’s need for email to kind of carry your “mail” just as in the physical world. I think email is not likely to be completely ruled out by other means of communication.

But, on the backside, I have to say that at least my inbox has become a kind of wild bazaar, where you could sample any 30 consecutive mails and they’re probably from at least 27 different contexts. In other words, the email stream has become less coherent and more diversified, which sometimes occludes efficient access to important information. I did have a time when my inbox was filled with over 600 unread mails, and they really did start to press my brain!

Lot of possibilities ahead

So it’s a mix-and-match game of picking up important signal from the noise. Automation, learning filters, and precise custom-made filters can probably help a lot. Perhaps also visualization of emails, like a tree, a timeline, or perhaps using unique keywords and drawing a mesh network of how the days’ emails related to each other? Time will tell!

3g · location · mobile · mobile network · Nokia e71 · ubiset


Reading Time: < 1 minute

Building your own ubiset:

– buy a modern 3G phone
– install the following software:
* Google Maps (http://www.google.com/mobile/)
* Tweets60 (http://www.tweets60.com/)
* Glogger Lite (http://m.glogger.mobi/)
* Fring (though it’s a battery drain)

This set gives you access to a lot of info on the road. You can keep in touch
and document (Glogger) what you see. Fring is quite on drain on battery, so be
careful with that. My mobile was sucked empty in 1 day instead of normal
3-4 days (at that point of its life).

Also, read EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation) instructions about how
to preserve your location privacy. At least if you decide to give away
information you know how it can be (ab)used.

[ubiset = equipment needed for ubiquitous presence, the ability to stay in touch with a network of services and friends]
3g · assembly · Commodore · eyetap · mobile · Nokia e71 · traffic

non-intravenous ED

Reading Time: 2 minutes

No, don’t open your mail. You have about 400 unread messages, of which
luckily 98% can be deleted without going further than a mere flick.
I won’t suggest that you’d be reckless, but I once deleted over
600 mails and the decision brought no pain whatsoever. It relieved
me a lot.

There’s a better way nowadays. You can Archive, with GMail. So
if you have second thoughts, you can always access your killed mail.

Mail hurts your brain. It’s a constraint to the creativeness we all
have inside. Unless Google Wave changes that dramatically. Well,
of course you have to be realistic. It’s our garbage that we
create, so I don’t expect a product to clean it all up.

But wait a second; am I really talking this? I live basically out of
mail, blogs, Twitter, and Facebook. They are part of me.

The news company I was working for had a telecaster set up today.
It looked like a torture machine out of the 1930s, with a pole and
all those electrical cords attached to it. But it was high-tech,
I’m sure of that. And I really don’t mean to say that it wouldn’t
be efficient, it’s just that I think there’s going to be
a challenger around the corner.

I’ve been a geek since 1983. In the end of 1990s, there was a new
toy on the market: PDA. A personal digital assistant. Don’t let
the name fool you. It’s silicon alright, but not that kind of.
The machine consists of a screen, memory, cpu, keyboard, and
usually no direct mobile network connection. Essentially it
was a 8 megabyte address book.

It ran EPOC, which became Symbian. I remember that the operating
system excelled in being very tightly coded, and thus didn’t
hog up memory much.

Years roll by, but the amount of trash I carry doesn’t go down.
This is one point which will change. With things like Eyetap
(from Steve Mann) the user will be liberated from carrying
electronics around. I have to admit I have been quite
addicted to the concept. It’s such cyborgish! And provides
real benefits, not just geeky humour stuff. The eyetap
is something that has been waited for decades.
Did you know that the movie Terminator was partially inspired
by this technology? You can see a scene in which the Terminator’s
point of view is projected; the reddish scene, in which
Commodore C=64 assembly language statements scroll! ūüôā
(Ok, it was called Apple II assembly, but they both
use the MOS 6502 cpu).

I’m currently riding a bus. With me, I have Branson’s newest book,
as Irvine Welsh’s; there’s an ED, my dear Nokia e71, a wallet, and my laptop with
3G card. I consider myself mobile. But I still want to trash most
the these gadgets, and start using a single one. Would be my
dream come true. Still, ED non-intravenously, please.


2G · 3g · 4g · calculator · chat · evolution · GPS · instant messenger · mobile network · Motorola Dynatec · video calls

The coming 4G network looks good!

Reading Time: 3 minutes

Mobile phones are basically computers that operate over radio networks. The base stations
are one important component which create the universe of possibilities of what the
mobiles can do. Depending on the generation of the system, different capabilities are

The first mobile network, so called 1st generation, could relay speech from one mobile
phone to another. The speech was analog, so there was no analog-to-digital conversion.
Because of the speech signal being totally analog and without encryption, all conversations
could be easily eavesdropped. The NMT network operated in the 900 MHz frequency. When a
standard is set, the frequencies usually have to be internationally locked. In the coming GSM standard this standardization (excuse me the language) was a key player. Without it,
the flexible use of mobile phone around the world would not have been possible.

2nd generation system was essentially digital. Speech was digitized, and the bits were
compressed using very sophisticated algorithms. Because of compressing, a mobile phone
would save bandwidth. A mere 9.6 kBps or 9600 bits per second is sufficient to relay
speech. In addition to compression, the signal was encrypted so that eavesdropping
is not possible.
The 2nd gen. system was designed to have open standards, which improved the
market penetration. Since telecom companies could freely choose the equipment providers,
costs were kept at bay. GSM is a global success.

3G or third generation network increased the capacity of traffic between a phone
and the base station. Of course as with any new technology, the mobile phones have
to be specifically tailored to have 3G enabling chips.

The 4G network is a collection of new technology, but it essentially builds on the 3G.
There are interesting benefits what the new infrastructure can provide. A basic but often
needed thing is the increased transfer speeds. And we’re not talking just 2x speeds, but
an estimated 30x … 100x increases.

How has the culture of mobility evolved?
At first mobile phones were really bulky. A Motorola Dynatac 8000x mobile weighted
794 grams (28 ounces). Current phones in the year 2009 are a little bit over 80 grams;
take Nokia 6120 Classic, which weighs 89 grams. There are probably models which are
even less. Only people with “true need” had mobiles; police, firemen, people who
needed to receive orders or customer phone calls on the move. Then the phones
began to move into mainstream direction. Nowadays in 2009 you are an exception
if you’re carrying a mobile phone in your pocket. Some people abstain for a reason.
Some politicians are struggling with the amount of calls and messages they receive.

The culture of mobility is wide concept. There have been both practical and social
factors in shaping the culture. Social factors are by no means insignificant. In some
countries it may be considered extremely rude that one talks to a mobile phone. And in
other the context dictates a lot. It’s considered bad behaviour to talk to a mobile
in classroom, meetings, the church, cinema, or in the presence of your spouse – in
general, where talking may interfere with people’s concentration and mood.

The evolution of mobile phone use is tied in with the technology that phones offer.
First mobiles were very simple; they basically had the keypad and possibility to make
phone calls. The screen is black-and-white, with a poor resolution. Viewing images
or doing anything else was considered unnecessary. Then the evolution of the
phones started to bring whole new kind of features:
* email
* calculators and other utility programs
* phonebooks (list of numbers and names)
* alarm clocks
* stopwatches
* video
* games
* camera
* instant messenger
* calendar
* playback of music
* video call capability
* GPS navigation
* viewing TV

Even now as of 2009, the general population uses quite scarce amount of services.
According to a recent research only a mere 1/4 of Finns use mobile services. These
services are considered difficult to install, use, and the payment methods
are suspicous.

The iPhone seems to be one great ice-breaker that has increased network and service
usage considerably. It’s largely due to the immediate presentation of these
services in the phone’s user interface, and general good usability.